六祖法寶壇經 (三) 第八至第十品 中英對照

頓漸品第八 Sudden School vs Gradual School

時,祖師居曹溪寶林;神秀大師在荊南玉泉寺。于時兩宗盛化,人皆稱南能北秀;故有南北二宗頓漸之分,而學者莫知宗趣。
While the Patriarch was living in Bao Lin Monastery, the Grand Master Shen Xiu was preaching in Yu Quan Monastery of Jing Nan. At that time the two Schools, that of Hui Neng of the South and Shen Xiu of the North, flourished side by side. As the two Schools were distinguished from each other by the names “Sudden” (the South) and “Gradual” (the North), the question which sect they should follow baffled certain Buddhist scholars (of that time).

six4師謂眾曰:「法本一宗,人有南北,法即一種,見有遲疾;何名頓漸?法無頓漸,人有利鈍,故名頓漸。」 (Seeing this), the Patriarch addressed the assembly as follows: “So far as the Dharma is concerned, there can be only one School. (If a distinction exists) it exists in the fact that the founder of one school is a northern man, while the other is a Southerner. While there is only one Dharma, some disciples realize it more quickly than others. The reason why the names ‘Sudden’ and ‘Gradual’ are given is that some disciples are superior to others in mental dispositions. So far as the Dharma is concerned, the distinction of ‘Sudden’ and ‘Gradual’ does not exist.”

然秀之徒眾,往往譏南宗祖師不識一字,有何所長?秀曰:「他得無師之智,深悟上乘,吾不如也。且吾師五祖,親傅衣法,豈徒然哉!吾恨不能遠去親近,虛受國恩。汝等諸人,毋滯於此,可往曹溪參決。」
(In spite of what the Patriarch had said,) the followers of Shen Xiu used to criticize the Patriarch. They discredited him by saying that as he was illiterate he could not distinguish himself in any respect.

Shen Xiu himself, on the other hand, admitted that he was inferior to the Patriarch, that the Patriarch attained wisdom without the aid of a teacher, and that he understood thoroughly the teaching of the Mahayana School. “Moreover,” he added, “my teacher, the Fifth Patriarch, would not have transmitted to him the robe and the bowl without good cause. I regret that, owing to the patronage of the state, which I by no means deserve, I am unable to travel far to receive instructions from him personally. (But) you men should go to Cao Xi to consult him.”

一日,命門人志誠曰:「汝聰明多智,可為吾到曹溪聽法;若有所聞,盡心記取,還為吾說。」志誠稟命至曹溪,隨眾參請,不言來處。
One day he said to his disciple, Zhi Cheng, “You are intelligent and bright. On my behalf, you may go to Cao Xi to attend the lectures there. Try your best to remember what you learn, so that upon your return you may repeat it to me.” Acting on his teacher’s instruction, Zhi Cheng went to Cao Xi. Without telling whence he came he joined the crowd there to call on the Patriarch.

時,祖師告眾曰:「今有盜法之人,潛在此會。」志誠即出禮拜,具陳其事。師曰:「汝從玉泉水,應是細作。」對曰:「不是!」師曰:「何得不是?」對曰:「未說即走,說了不是。」”Someone has hidden himself here to plagiarize my lecture,” said the Patriarch to the assembly. Thereupon, Zhi Cheng came out, made obeisance, and told the Patriarch what his mission was. “You come from Yu Quan Monastery, do you?” asked the Patriarch. “You must be a spy.” “No, I am not,” replied Zhi Cheng. “Why not?” asked the Patriarch. “If I had not told you,” said Zhi Cheng, “I would be a spy. Since I have told you all about it, I am not.”

師曰:「汝師若為示眾?」對曰:「常指誨大眾,住心觀淨,長坐不臥。」
“How does your teacher instruct his disciples?” asked the Patriarch.
“He tells us to meditate on purity, to keep up the sitting position all the time and not to lie down,” replied Zhi Cheng.

師曰:「住心觀淨,是病非禪;長坐拘身,於理何益?聽吾偈曰:
“To meditate on purity,” said the Patriarch, “is an infirmity and not Dhyana. To restrict oneself to the sitting position all the time is unprofitable. Listen to my stanza:

『生來坐不臥,死去臥不坐,元是臭骨頭,何為立功過。』」
A living man sits and does not lie down (all the time),
While a dead man lies down and does not sit.
On this physical body of ours
Why should we impose the task of squatting?”

志誠再拜曰:「弟子在秀大師處學道九年,不得契悟;今聞和尚一說,便契本心。弟子生死事大,和尚大慈,更為教示!」
Making obeisance a second time, Zhi Cheng remarked, “Though I have studied Buddhism for nine years under the Grand Master Shen Xiu, my mind has not yet been awakened for enlightenment. But as soon as you speak to me my mind is enlightened. As the question of incessant rebirths is a momentous one, please take pity on me and give me further instruction.”

師曰:「吾聞汝師教示學人戒定慧法,未審汝師說戒定慧行相如何?與吾說看。」
“I understand,” said the Patriarch, “that your teacher gives his disciples instructions on Sila (disciplinary rules), Dhyana (meditation), and Prajna (Wisdom). Please tell me how he defines these terms.”

誠曰:「秀大師說,諸惡莫作名為戒,諸善奉行名為慧,自淨其意名為定,彼說如此,未審和尚以何法誨人?」
“According to his teaching,” replied Zhi Cheng, “to refrain from all evil actions is Sila, to practice whatever is good is Prajna, and to purify one’s own mind is Dhyana. This is the way he teaches us. May I know your system?”

師曰:「吾若言有法與人,即為誑汝。但且隨才解縛,假名三昧。如汝師所說戒定慧,實不可思議,吾所見戒定慧又別。」
“If I tell you,” said the Patriarch, “that I have a system of Law to transmit to others, I am cheating you. What I do to my disciples is to liberate them from their own bondage with such devices as the case may need. To use a name which is nothing but a makeshift, this (state of liberation) may be called Samadhi. The way your master teaches Sila, Dhyana, and Prajna is wonderful; but my exposition is different.”

志誠曰:「戒定慧只合一種,如何更別?」師曰:「汝師戒定慧,接大乘人;吾戒定慧,接最上乘人。悟解不同,見有遲疾;汝聽吾說,與彼同否?
“How can it be different, Sir,” asked Zhi Cheng, “when there is only one form of Sila, Dhyana and Prajna?” “The teaching of your master,” replied the Patriarch, “is for the followers of the Mahayana School, while mine is for those of the Supreme School. The fact that some realize the Dharma more quickly and deeply than others accounts for the difference in the interpretation. You may listen, and see if my instruction is the same as his.

吾所說法,不離自性;離體說法,名為相說;自性常迷,須知一切萬法,皆從自性起用,是真戒定慧法,聽吾偈曰:
In expounding the Law, I do not deviate from the authority of the Essence of Mind (i.e., I speak what I realize intuitively). To speak otherwise would indicate that the expositor’s Essence of Mind is under obscuration and that he can touch the phenomenal side of the Law only. The true teaching of Sila, Dhyana and Prajna should be based on the principle that the function of all things derives from the Essence of Mind. Listen to my stanza:

心地無非自性戒,心地無癡自性慧,心地無亂自性定,不增不減自金剛,身去身來本三昧。
To free the mind from all impurity is the Sila of the Essence of Mind.
To free the mind from all disturbance is the Dhyana of the Essence of Mind.
That which neither increases nor decreases is the Vajra
(Diamond, used as a symbol for the Essence of Mind);
‘Coming’ and ‘going’ are different phases of Samadhi.”

誠聞偈悔謝,乃呈一偈:
Having heard this, Zhi Cheng apologized (for having asked a foolish question) and thanked the Patriarch for his instruction. He then submitted the following stanza:
「五蘊幻身,幻何究竟?迴趣真如,法還不淨。」
The ‘Self’ is nothing but a phantasm created by the union of five Skandhas,
And a phantasm can have nothing to do with absolute reality.
To hold that there is a Tathata (Suchness) for us to aim at or to return to
Is another example of ‘Impure Dharma’.
(Note: For Pure Law is above concept and speech)

師然之。復語誠曰:「汝師戒定慧,勸小根智人;吾戒定慧,勸大智根人;若悟自性,亦不立菩提涅槃,亦不立解脫知見。無一法可得,才能建立萬法;若解此意, 亦名菩提涅槃,亦名解脫知見。
Approving what he said in his stanza, the Patriarch said to him again, “The teaching of your master on Sila, Dhyana and Prajna applies to wise men of the inferior type, while mine to those of the superior type. He who realizes the Essence of Mind may dispense with such doctrines as Bodhi, Nirvana, and ‘Knowledge of Emancipation’. Only those who do not possess a single system of Law can formulate all systems of Law, and only those who can understand the meaning (of this paradox) may use such terms.

見性之人,立亦得,不立亦得,去來自由,無滯無礙;應用隨作,應語隨答;普見化身,不離自性,即得自在神通,游戲二昧;是名 見性。」
It makes no difference to those who have realized the Essence of Mind whether they formulate all systems of Law or dispense with all of them. They are at liberty to ‘come’ or to ‘go’ (i.e., they may remain in or leave this world at their own free will). They are free from obstacles or impediments. They take appropriate actions as circumstances require. They give suitable answers according to the temperament of the enquirer. They see that all Nirmanakayas are one with the Essence of Mind. They attain liberation, psychic powers (Siddhi) and Samadhi, which enable them to perform the arduous task of universal salvation as easily as if they were only playing. Such are the men who have realized the Essence of Mind!”

志誠再啟師曰:「如何是不立義?」”By what principle are we guided in dispensing with all systems of Law?” was Zhi Cheng’s next question.

師曰:「自性無非、無癡、無亂;念念般若觀照,常離法相,自由自在,縱橫盡得,有何可立? “When our Essence of Mind is free from impurity, infatuations and disturbances,” replied the Patriarch, “when we introspect our mind from moment to moment with Prajna, and when we do not cling to things and phenomenal objects we are free and liberated. Why should we formulate any system of Law when our goal can be reached no matter whether we turn to the right or to the left?

自性自悟,頓悟頓脩,亦無漸次,所以不立一切法。諸法寂滅,有何次第?」
Since it is with our own efforts that we realize the Essence of Mind, and since the realization and the practice of the Law are both done instantaneously, and not gradually or stage by stage, the formulation of any system of Law is unnecessary. As all Dharmas are intrinsically Nirvanic, how can there be gradation in them?”

志誠禮拜,願為執侍,朝夕不懈。
Zhi Cheng made obeisance and volunteered to be an attendant of the Patriarch. In that capacity, he served both day and night.

一僧志徹,江西人,本姓張,名行昌,少任仗;自南北分化,二宗主雖亡彼我,而徒侶競起愛憎。
Bhikkhu Zhi Che, whose secular name was Zhang Xing Chang, was a native of Kiangxi. As a young man, he was fond of chivalric exploits. Since the two Dhyana Schools, Hui Neng of the South and Shen Xiu of the North, flourished side by side, a strong sectarian feeling ran high on the part of the disciples, in spite of the tolerant spirit shown by the two masters, who hardly knew what egotism was.

時,北宗門人,自立秀師為第六祖,而忌祖師傳衣為天下聞,乃囑行昌來剌師。
Calling their own teacher, Shen Xiu, the Sixth Patriarch on no better authority than their own, the followers of the Northern School were jealous of the rightful owner of that title whose claim, supported by the inherited robe, was too well known to be ignored. (So in order to get rid of the rival teacher) they sent Zhang Xing Chang (who was then a layman) to murder the Patriarch.

師心通,預知其事,即置金十兩於座間。
With his psychic power of mind-reading the Patriarch was able to know of the plot beforehand. (Making ready for the coming of the murderer), he put ten taels by the side of his own seat.

時,夜暮,行昌入祖室,將欲加害,師舒頸就之。行昌揮刃者三,悉無所損。
Zhang duly arrived, and one evening entered the Patriarch’s room to carry out the murder. With outstretched neck the Patriarch waited for the fatal blow. Thrice did Zhang cut, (but) not a single wound was thereby inflicted!

師曰:「正劍不邪,邪劍不正;只負汝金,不負汝命。」
The Patriarch then addressed him as follows: “A straight sword is not crooked, While a crooked one is not straight.I owe you money only; But life I do not owe.”

行昌驚仆,久而方蘇,求哀悔過,即願出家。師遂與金,言:「汝且去,恐徒眾翻害於汝,汝可他日易形而來,吾當攝受。」行昌稟旨宵遁,後投僧出家。
The surprise was too great for Zhang; he fell into a swoon and did not revive for a considerable time. Remorseful and penitent, he asked for mercy and volunteered to join the Order at once. Handing him the money, the Patriarch said, “You had better not remain here, lest my followers should do you harm. Come to see me in disguise some other time, and I will take good care of you.” As directed, Zhang ran away the same night. Subsequently, he joined the Order ubder a certain Bhikkhu. Upon being fully ordained, proved himself to be a very diligent monk.

一日,憶師之言,遠來禮覲。師曰:「吾久念汝,汝來水何晚?」
One day, recollecting what the Patriarch had said, he took the long journey to see him and to tender him homage. “Why do you come so late?” asked the Patriarch.  “I have been thinking of you all the time.”

曰:「昨蒙和尚捨罪,今雖出家苦行,終難報德,其惟傳法度生乎?弟子常覽涅槃經,未曉常無常義,乞和尚慈悲,略為解說。」
“Since that day you so graciously pardoned my crime,” said Zhang, “I have become a Bhikkhu and have studied Buddhism diligently. Yet I find it difficult to requite you adequately unless I can show my gratitude by spreading the Law for the deliverance of sentient beings. In studying the Maha Parinirvana Sutra, which I read very often, I cannot understand the meaning of ‘Eternal’ and ‘Not Eternal’. Will you, Sir, kindly give me a short explanation.”

師曰:「無常者,即佛性也;有常者,即一切善惡諸法分別心也。」
“What is not eternal is the Buddha-nature,” replied the Patriarch, “and what is eternal is the discriminating mind together with all meritorious and demeritorious Dharmas.”

曰:「和尚所說,大違經文。」師曰:「吾傳佛心印,安敢違於佛經?」
“Your explanation, Sir, contradicts the Sutra,” said Zhang.
“I dare not, since I inherit the ‘Heart-Seal’ of Lord Buddha,” replied the Patriarch.

曰:「經說佛性是常,和尚卻言無常;善惡諸法,乃至菩提心,皆是無常,和尚卻言是常;此即相違,令學人轉加疑惑。」
“According to the Sutra,” said Zhang, “the Buddha-nature is eternal, while all meritorious and demeritorious Dharmas, including the Bodhi-citta (the Wisdom-heart) are not eternal. As you hold otherwise, is this not a contradiction? Your explanation has now intensified my doubts and perplexities.”

師曰:「涅槃經,吾昔聽尼無盡藏讀誦一遍,便為講說,無一宇一義不合經文,乃至為汝,終無二說。」
“On one occasion,” replied the Patriarch, “I had Bhikkhuni Wu jin-Zang recite to me the whole book of the Maha Parinirvana Sutra, so that I could explain it to her. Every word and every meaning I explained on that occasion agreed with the text. As to the explanation I give you now, it likewise differs not from the text.”

曰:「學人識量淺昧,願和尚委曲開示。」”As my capacity for understanding is a poor one,” observed Zhang, “will you kindly explain to me more fully and more clearly.”

師曰:「汝知否?佛性若常,更說什麼善惡諸法,乃至窮劫,無有一人發菩提心者;故吾說無常,正是佛說真常之道也。又一切諸法若無常者,即物物皆有自性,客受生死,而真常性有不遍之處;故吾說常者,正是佛說真無常義。
“Don’t you understand?” said the Patriarch. “If Buddha-nature is eternal, it would be of no use to talk about meritorious and demeritorious Dharmas; and until the end of a Kalpa no one would arouse the Bodhi-citta. Therefore, when I say ‘Not-Eternal’ it is exactly what Lord Buddha meant for ‘Truly Eternal’. Again, if all Dharmas are not eternal, then every thing or object would have a nature of its own (i.e., positive essence) to suffer death and birth. In that case, it would mean that the Essence of Mind which is truly eternal does not pervade everywhere. Therefore when I say ‘Eternal’ it is exactly what Lord Buddha meant by ‘Truly Not-Eternal’.

佛比為凡夫外道,執於邪常;諸二乘人,於常計無常,共成八倒故,於涅槃了義教中,破彼偏見, 而顯說真常、真樂、真我、真淨。
“Because ordinary men and heretics believe in ‘heretical eternalism’ (i.e., they believe in the eternity of soul and of the world), and because Sravakas (aspirants to arhatship) mistake the eternity of Nirvana as something not eternal, eight upside-down notions arise.[14] In order to refute these one-sided views, Lord Buddha preached exoterically in the Maha Parinirvana Sutra the ‘Ultimate Doctrine’ of Buddhist teaching, i.e., true eternity, true happiness, true self and true purity.

汝今依言背義,以斷滅無常,及確定死常,而錯解佛之圓妙最後微言,縱覽千遍,有何所益?」”In following slavishly the wording of the Sutra, you have ignored the spirit of the text. In assuming that what perishes is non-eternal and that what is fixed and immutable is eternal, you have misinterpreted Lord Buddha’s dying instruction (contained in the Maha Parinirvana Sutra) which is perfect, profound, and complete. You may read the Sutra a thousand times but you will get no benefit out of it.”

行昌忽然大悟,說偈云:All of a sudden Zhang awoke to full enlightenment, and submitted the following stanza to the Patriarch:

「因守無常心,佛說有常性,不知方便者,猶春池拾礫;
In order to refute the bigoted belief of ‘Non-eternity’
Lord Buddha preached the ‘Eternal Nature’.
He who does not know that such preaching is only a skilful device
May be likened to the child who picks up pebbles and calls them gems.

我今不施功,佛性而現前,非師相授與,我亦無所得。」
Without effort on my part
The Buddha-nature manifests itself.
This is due neither to the instruction of my teacher
Nor to any attainment of my own.

師曰:「汝今徹也,宜名志徹。」徹禮謝而退。
“You have now thoroughly realized (the Essence of Mind),” commended the Patriarch, “and hereafter you should name yourself Zhi Che (to realize thoroughly).” Zhi Che thanked the Patriarch, made obeisance, and departed.
(Note. – The Buddha’s object is to get rid of bigoted belief in any form. He would preach ‘Non-eternity’ to believers of Eternalism; and preach ‘neither Eternity nor Non-eternity’ to those who believe in both.)

有一童子,名神會,襄陽高氏子,年十三,白玉泉來參禮。師曰:「知識遠來艱辛,還將得本來否?若有本則合識主,試說看。」A thirteen-year-old boy named Shen Hui, who was born of a Gao family of Xiang Yang, came from Yu Quan Monastery to tender homage to the Patriarch. “My learned friend,” said the Patriarch, “it must be hard for you to undertake such a long journey. But can you tell me what is the ‘fundamental principle’? If you can, you know the owner (i.e., the Essence of Mind). Try to say something, please.”

會曰:「以無住為本,見即是主。」
“Non-attachment is the fundamental principle, and to know the owner is to realize (the Essence of Mind),” replied Shen Hui.

師曰:「這沙彌爭合取次語。」會乃問曰:「和尚坐禪,還見不見?」
“This Samanera (novice) is fit for nothing but to talk loosely,” reproved the Patriarch.
Thereupon Shen Hui asked the Patriarch, “In your meditation, Sir, do you see (your Essence of Mind) or not?”

師以柱打三下云:「吾打汝是痛不痛?」對曰:「亦痛,亦不痛。」 師曰:「吾亦見,亦不見。」
Striking him three blows with his staff, the Patriarch asked him whether he felt pain or not. “Painful and not painful,” replied Shen Hui. “I see and I see not,” retorted the Patriarch.

神會問:「如何是亦見,亦不見?」 “How is it that you see and see not?” asked Shen Hui.

師云:「吾之所見,常見自心過愆,不見他人是非好惡;是以亦見亦不見。汝言亦痛亦不痛,如何?汝若不痛,同其木石;若痛,則同凡夫,即起恚恨。
“What I see is my own faults,” replied the Patriarch. “What I do not see is the good, the evil, the merit and the demerit of others. That is why I see and I see not. Now tell me what you mean by ‘painful and not painful’. If you feel no pain, you would be as a piece of wood or stone. On the other hand, should you feel pain, and anger of hatred is thereby aroused, you would be in the same position as an ordinary man.

汝向前見不見,是二邊;痛不痛,是生滅。汝自性且不見,敢爾弄人?」
“The ‘Seeing’ and ‘not Seeing’ you referred to are a pair of opposites; while ‘painful’ and ‘not painful’ belong to that category of Dharma which becomes and ceases (i.e., Samskrita Dharma, conditioned or caused elements). Without having realized your own Essence of Mind, you dare to hoodwink others.”

神會禮拜悔謝。
Shen Hui apologized, made obeisance, and thanked the Patriarch for his instruction.

師又曰:「汝若心迷不見,問善知識覓路;汝若心悟,即自見性,依法修行。汝自迷不見自心,卻來問吾見與不見。吾見自知,豈待汝迷?汝若自見,亦不待吾迷,何不自知自見,乃問吾見與不見?」
Addressing him again the Patriarch said, “If you are under delusion and cannot realize your Essence of Mind, you should seek the advice of a pious and learned friend. When your mind is enlightened, you will know the Essence of Mind, and then you may tread the Path the right way. Now you are under delusion, and do not know your Essence of Mind. Yet you dare to ask whether I know my Essence of Mind or not. If I do, I realize it myself, but the fact that I know it cannot help you from being under delusion. Similarly, if you know your Essence of Mind your knowing would be of no use to me. Instead of asking others, why not see it for yourself and know it for yourself?”

神會再禮百餘拜,求謝過愆,服勤給侍,不離左右。
Making obeisance more than a hundred times, Shen Hui again expressed regret and asked the Patriarch to forgive him. (Henceforth) he worked diligently as the Patriarch’s attendant.

一日,師告眾曰:「吾有一物,無頭無尾,無名無字,無背無面,諸人還識否?」 神會出曰:「是諸佛之本源,神會之佛性。」
Addressing the assembly one day, the Patriarch said, “I have an article which has no head, no name nor appellation, no front and no back. Do any of you know it?” Stepping out from the crowd, Shen Hui replied, “It is the source of all Buddhas, and the Buddha-nature of Shen Hui.”

師曰:「向汝道無名無字,汝便喚作本源佛性。汝向去有把茆蓋頭,也只成箇知解宗徒。」”I have told you already that it is without name and appellation, and yet you call it ‘Source of Buddhas’ and ‘Buddha-nature’,” reproved the Patriarch. “Even if you confine yourself in a mat shed for further study (as is the wont of the Bhikkhus), you will be a Dhyana scholar of secondhand knowledge only (i.e., knowledge from books and verbal authority instead of Knowledge obtained intuitively).

祖師滅後,會入京洛,大弘曹溪頓教,著顯宗記,盛行于世;是謂荷澤禪師。
After the death of the Patriarch, Shen Hui left for Loyang, where he spread widely the teaching of the Sudden School. The popular work entitled ‘An Explicit Treatise on Dhyana Teaching’ was written by him. He is generally known by the name Dhyana Master He Ze (the name of his monastery).

師見諸宗難問,咸起惡心,多集座下,愍而謂曰:
Seeing that many questions were put to him in bad faith by followers of various Schools, and that a great number of such questioners had gathered around him, the Patriarch addressed them out of compassion as follows:

「學道之人,一切善念惡念,應當盡除;無名可名,名於自性;無二之性,是名實性,於實性上,建立一切教門,言下便須自見。」
“A treader of the Path should do away with all thoughts, good as well as evil ones. It is merely as an expedient that the Essence of Mind is so called; it cannot really be named by any name. This ‘non-dual nature’ is called the ‘true nature’, upon which all Dharma systems of teaching are based. One should realize the Essence of Mind as soon as one is spoken to about it.”

諸人聞說,總皆作禮,請事為師。Upon hearing this, every one made obeisance and asked the Patriarch to allow them to be his disciples.

護法品第九 Royal Patronage

神龍元年上元日,則天中宗詔云:
An edict dated the 15th day of the first Moon of the first year of Shen Long, issued by the Empress Dowager Ze Tian and the Emperor Zhong Zung ran as follows:

「朕請安秀二師,宮中供養,萬幾之暇,每究一乘。
“Since we invited Grand Masters Hui An and Shen Xiu to stay in the palace to receive our offerings, we have studied the ‘Buddha Vehicle’ under them whenever we could find time after attending to our imperial duties.

二師推讓云:『南方有能禪師,密授忍大師衣法,傳佛心印,可請彼問。』
Out of sheer modesty, these two Masters recommended that we should seek the advice of Dhyana Master Hui Neng of the South, who has esoterically inherited the Dharma and the robe of the Fifth Patriarch as well as the ‘Heart Seal’ of Lord Buddha.

今遣內侍薛簡,馳詔迎請。願師慈念,速赴上京。」
“We hereby send Eunuch Xue Jian as the courier of this Edict to invite His Holiness to come, and trust His Holiness will graciously favor us with an early visit to the capital, etc., etc.”

師上表辭疾,願終林麓。
On the ground of illness, the Patriarch sent a reply to decline the royal invitation and asked to be allowed to spend his remaining years in the “forest’.

薛簡曰:「京城禪德皆云:『欲得會道,必須坐禪習定;若不因禪定而得解脫者,未之有也。』未審師所說法如何?」
“Dhyana experts in the capital,” said Xue Jian (when interviewing the Patriarch), “unanimously advise people to meditate in the sitting position to attain Samadhi. They say that this is the only way to realize the Norm, and that it is impossible for anyone to obtain liberation without going through meditation exercises. May I know your way of teaching, Sir?”

師曰:「道由心悟,豈在坐也? 經云:『若言如來若坐若臥,是行邪道。』何故?無所從來,亦無所去;無生、無滅,是如來清淨禪;諸法空寂,是如來清淨坐,究竟無證,豈況坐耶?」
“The Norm is to be realized by the mind,” replied the Patriarch, “and does not depend on the sitting position. The Vajracchedika (Diamond) Sutra says that it is wrong ‘for anyone to assert that the Tathagata comes or goes, sits or reclines.’ Why? Because the Tathagata’s ‘Dhyana of Purity’ implies neither coming from anywhere nor going to anywhere, neither becoming nor causing to be. All Dharmas are calm and void, and such is the Tathagata’s ‘Seat of Purity’. Strictly speaking, there is even no such thing as ‘attainment'; why then should we bother ourselves about the sitting position?”

簡曰:「弟子回京,主上必問,願師慈悲指示心要,傳奏兩宮,及京城學道者;譬如一燈,然百千燈,冥者皆明,明明無盡。」
“Upon my return,” said Xue Jian, “Their Majesties will certainly ask me to make a report. Will you, Sir, kindly give me some essential hints on your teaching, so that I can make them known not only to Their Majesties, but also to all Buddhist scholars in the capital? As the flame of one lamp may kindle hundreds or thousands of others, so the ignorant will be enlightened (by your teaching), and light will produce light without end.”

師云:「道無明暗,明暗是代謝之義;明明無盡,亦是有盡,相待立名。故淨名經云:『法無有比,無相待故。』」
“The Norm implies neither light nor darkness,” replied the Patriarch. “Light and darkness signify the idea of alternation. (It is not correct to say) that light will produce light without end, because there is an end, since light and darkness are a pair of opposites. The Vimalakirti Nirdesa Sutra says, ‘The Norm has no comparison, since it is not a relative term’.”

簡曰:「明喻智慧,暗喻煩惱,脩道之人,倘不以智慧照破煩惱,無始生死,憑何出離?」
“Light signifies wisdom,” argued Xue Jian, “and darkness signifies Klesa (defilement). If a treader of the Path does not break up Klesa with the force of wisdom, how is he going to free himself from the ‘wheel of birth and death’, which is beginningless?”

師曰:「煩惱即是菩提,無二無別。若以智慧照破煩惱者,此是二乘見解,羊鹿等機,上智大根,悉不如是。」”Klesa is Bodhi,” rejoined the Patriarch. “The two are the same and not different. To break up Klesa with wisdom is the teaching of the Sravaka (aspirant to Arhatship) School and the Pratyeka Buddha School, the followers of which are of the ‘Goat Vehicle’ and ‘Deer Vehicle’ standard respectively. To those of superior mental dispositions such teaching would be of no use at all.”

簡曰:「如何是大乘見解?」
“What then, is the teaching of the Mahayana School?” asked Xue Jian.

師曰:「明與無明,凡夫見二;智者了達,共性無二,無二之性,即是實性。實性者:處凡愚而不減,在賢聖而不增,住煩惱而不亂,居禪定而不寂。不斷、不常、不來、不去,不在中間及其內外;不生、不滅,性相如如,常住不遷,名之曰道。」
“From the point of view of ordinary men,” replied the Patriarch, “enlightenment and ignorance are two separate things. Wise men who realize thoroughly the Essence of Mind know that they are of the same nature. This same nature or non-dual nature is what is called the ‘real nature’, which neither decreases in the case of ordinary men and ignorant persons, nor increases in the case of the enlightened sage; which is not disturbed in a state of annoyance, nor calm in a state of Samadhi. It is neither eternal nor non-eternal; it neither goes nor comes; it is not to be found in the exterior, nor in the interior, nor in the space between the two. It is above existence and non-existence; its nature and its phenomena are always in a state of ‘Thusness'; it is permanent and immutable. Such is the Norm.”

簡曰:「師曰不生不滅,何異外道?」
Xue Jian asked, “You say that it is above existence and non-existence. How then do you differentiate it from the teaching of the heretics who teach the same thing?”

師曰:「外道所說不生不滅者,將滅止生,以生顯滅,滅猶不滅,生說不生。我說不生不滅者,本自無生,今亦不滅,所以不 同外道。汝若欲知心要,但一切善惡,都莫思量,自然得入清淨心體,湛然常寂,妙用恒沙。」
“In the teaching of the heretics,” replied the Patriarch, “‘non-existence’ means the end of ‘existence’, while ‘existence’ is used in contrast with ‘non-existence’. What they mean by ‘non-existence’ is not actually annihilation and what they call ‘existence’ does not really exist. What I mean by ‘above existence and non-existence’ is this; intrinsically it exists not, and at the present moment it is not annihilated. Such is the difference between my teaching and that of the heretics.
“If you wish to know the essential points of my teaching, you should free yourself from all thoughts, good ones as well as bad; then your mind will be in a state of purity, calm and serene all the time, and its usefulness as manifold as the grains of sand in the Ganges.”

簡蒙指教,豁然大悟,禮辭歸闕,表奏師語。
The preaching of the Patriarch suddenly awoke Xue Jian to full enlightenment. He made obeisance and bid the Patriarch adieu. Upon his return to the palace, he reported what the Patriarch had said to Their Majesties.

其年九月三日,有詔獎諭師曰:
In that same year, on the third day of the ninth Moon, an edict was issued commending the Patriarch in the following terms:–

「師辭老疾,為朕修道,國之福田,師若淨名,托疾毗耶,闡揚大乘,傳諸佛心,談不二法, “On the ground of old age and poor health, the Patriarch declined our invitation to come to the capital. Devoting his life to the practice of Buddhism for our benefit, he is indeed the ‘field of merit’ of the nation. Like Vimalakirti, who recuperated in Vaisali, he widely spreads the Mahayana teaching, transmits the doctrine of the Dhyana School, and expounds the system of ‘Non-dual’ Law.

薛簡傳師指授如來知見,朕積善餘慶,宿種善根,值師出世,頓悟上乘。感荷師恩,頂戴無已,”Through the medium of Xue Jian, to whom the Patriarch has imparted the ‘Buddha-knowledge’, we are fortunate enough to have a chance to understand for ourselves the teaching of the Supreme Vehicle. This must be due to our accumulated merits and our ‘root of goodness’ planted in past lives; otherwise, we should not be the contemporaries of His Holiness. “

並奉摩納袈裟,及水晶缽,敕韶州刺史脩寺宇,賜師舊居,為國恩寺焉。」
In appreciation of the graciousness of the Patriarch, we present to him herewith a Mo Na robe and a crystal bowl. The Prefect of Shao Chou is hereby ordered to renovate his monastery and to convert his old residence into a temple which is to be named ‘Guo En’ (State Munificence), by royal favor, etc., etc.”

付囑品第十 Final Instructions

師,一日喚門人法海、志誠、法達、神會、智常、智通、志徹、志道、法珍、法如等曰:
One day the Patriarch sent for his disciples, Fa Hai, Zhi Cheng, Fa Da, Shen Hui, Zhi Chang, Zhi Tong, Zhi Che, Zhi Dao, Fa Zhen, Fa Ru, etc., and addressed them as follows:–

「汝等不同餘人,吾滅度後,各為一方師。吾今教汝說法,不失本宗,
“You men are different from the common lot. After my entering into Parinirvana, each of you will be the Dhyana Master of a certain district. I am, therefore, going to give you some hints on preaching, so that when doing so, you may keep up the tradition of our School.

先須舉三科法門,動用三十六對,出沒即離兩邊,說一切法莫離自性。
“First mention the three categories of Dharmas, and then the thirty-six ‘pairs of opposites’ in the activities (of the Essence of Mind). Then teach how to avoid the two extremes of ‘coming in’ or ‘going out’. In all preaching, stray not from the Essence of Mind.

忽有人問汝法,出語盡雙,皆取對法,來去相因,究竟三法盡除,更無去處。」
Whenever a man puts a question to you, answer him in antonyms, so that a ‘pair of opposites’ will be formed. (For example), ‘coming’ and ‘going’ are the reciprocal cause of each other; when the interdependence of the two is entirely done away with there would be, in the absolute sense, neither ‘coming’ nor ‘going’.

「三科法門者,陰界入也。”The three categories of Dharmas are: Skandhas (aggregates), Ayatanas (places or spheres of meeting), Dhatus (factors of consciousness).

陰是五陰:色受想行識是也。
The five Skandhas are:– Rupa (matter), Vedana (sensation), Samjna (perception), Samskara (tendencies of mind), and Vijnana (consciousness).

入是十二入,外六塵:色、聲、香、味、觸、法;內六門:眼、耳、鼻、舌、身、意是也。

The twelve Ayatanas are:
Six Sense Objects (external) Six Sense Organs (internal)
Object of sight Organ of sight
Object of hearing Organ of hearing
Object of smell Organ of smell
Object of taste Organ of taste
Object of touch Organ of touch
Object of thought Organ of thought

界是十八界:六 塵、六門、六識是也。
The eighteen Dhatus are: The six sense objects, six sense organs and six recipient vijnanas.

自性能含萬法,名含藏識;若起思量,即是轉識。
“Since the Essence of Mind is the embodiment of all Dharmas, it is called the Repository Consciousness (Alaya). But as soon as the process of thinking or reasoning is started, the Essence of Mind is transmuted into (various) vijnanas.

生六識,出六門,見六塵,如是一十八界,皆從自性起用。
When the six recipient vijnanas come into being, they perceive the six sense objects through the six ‘doors’ (of sense). Thus, the functioning of the eighteen dhatus derive their impetus from the Essence of Mind.

自性若邪,起十八邪;自性若正,走十八正。含惡用即眾生用,善用即佛用。用由何等,由自性有。」Whether they function with an evil tendency or a good one depends upon what mood — good or evil — the Essence of Mind is in. Evil functioning is that of a common man, while good functioning is that of a Buddha. It is because there are ‘pairs of opposites’ inherent in the Essence of Mind that the functioning of the eighteen dhatus derive their impetus.

「對法外境,無情五對:天與地對,日與月對,明與暗對,陰與陽對,水與火對,此是五對也。”The thirty-six ‘Pairs of opposites’ are: Five external inanimate ones: Heaven and earth, sun and moon, light and darkness, positive element and negative element, fire and water.

法相語言十二對:語與法對,有與無對,有色與無色對,有相與無相 對,有漏與無漏對,色與空對,動與靜對,清與濁對,凡與聖對,僧與俗對,老與少對,大與小對,此是十二對也。Twelve Dharmalaksana (phenomenal objects): Speech and Dharma, affirmation and negation, matter and non-matter, form and without form, taints (asravas) and absence of taint, matter and void, motion and quiescence, purity and impurity, ordinary people and sages, the Sangha and the laity, the aged and the young, the big and the small.

自性起用十九對:長與短對,邪與正對,癡與慧 對,愚與智對,亂與定對,慈與毒對,戒與非對,直與曲對,實與虛對,險與平對,煩惱與菩提對,常與無常對,悲與害對,喜與嗔對,捨與慳對,進與退對,生與 滅對,法身與色身對,化身與報身對,此是十九對也。」Nineteen pairs denoting the functioning of the Essence of Mind: Long and short, good and evil, infatuated and enlightened, ignorant and wise, perturbed and calm, merciful and wicked, abstinent (Sila) and indulgent, straight and crooked, full and empty, steep and level, Klesa and Bodhi, permanent and transient, compassionate and cruel, happy and angry, generous and mean, forward and backward, existent and non-existent, Dharmakaya and physical body, Sambhogakaya and Nirmanakaya.

師言:「此三十六對法若解用,即通貫一切經法,出入即離兩邊, “He who knows how to use these thirty-six pairs realizes the all-pervading principle which goes through the teaching of all Sutras. Whether he is ‘coming in’ or ‘going out’, he is able to avoid the two extremes.

自性動用,共人言語,外於相離相,內於空離空,
“In the functioning of the Essence of Mind and in conversation with others, outwardly we should free ourselves from attachment to objects, whence come contact with objects; and inwardly, with regard to the teaching of the ‘Void,’ we should free ourselves from the idea of Nihilism.

若全著相。即長邪見,若全執空,即長無明。To believe in the reality of objects or in Nihilism would result in deep-rooted fallacious views or intensified ignorance respectively.

執 空之人,有謗經直言不用文字,即云不用文字,人亦不合語言,只此語言,便是文字之相。又云直道不立文字,即此不立兩字,亦是文字,
“A bigoted believer in Nihilism blasphemes against the Sutras on the ground that literature (i.e., the Buddhist Scriptures) is unnecessary (for the study of Buddhism). If that were so, then neither would it be right for us to speak, since speech forms the substance of literature. He would also argue that in the direct method (literally, the straight Path) literature is discarded. But does he appreciate that the two words ‘is discarded’ are also literature?

見人所說,便即謗他言著文字。汝等須知,自迷猶可,又謗佛經,不要謗經,罪障無數。
Upon hearing others speak of Sutras, such a man would criticize the speakers as ‘addicted to scriptural authority’. It is bad enough for him to confine this mistaken notion to himself, but in addition, he blasphemes against the Buddhist scriptures. You men should know that it is a serious offence to speak ill of the Sutras, for the consequence is grave indeed!

若著相於外,而作法求真,或廣立道場,說有無之過患,如是之人,累劫不可見性, “He who believes in the reality of outward objects tries to seek the form (from without) by practicing a certain system of doctrine. He may furnish spacious lecture-halls for the discussion of Realism or Nihilism, but such a man will not for numerous Kalpas realize the Essence of Mind.

但聽依法修行,又莫百物不思,而於道性窒礙。若聽說不修,令人反生邪念,
“We should tread the Path according to the teaching of the Law, and not keep our mind in a state of indolence, thereby creating obstacles to the understanding of the Norm. To preach or to hear the Law without practicing it would give occasion for the arising of heretical views.

但依法修行,無住相法施。汝等若悟,依此說,依此用,依此行,依此作,即不失本宗。
Hence, we should tread the Path according to the teaching of the Law, and in the dissemination of the Dharma we should not be influenced by the concept of the reality of objects.
“If you understand what I say, and make use of it in preaching, in practice, and in your daily life, you will grasp the distinguishing feature of our School.

若有人問汝 義,問有,將無對;問無,將有對;問凡,以聖對;問聖,以凡對。二道相因,生中道義,汝一問一對,餘問一依此作,即不失理也。
“Whenever a question is put to you, answer it in the negative if it is an affirmative one; and vice versa. If you are asked about an ordinary man, tell the enquirer something about a sage; and vice versa. From the correlation or interdependence of the two opposites the doctrine of the ‘Mean’ may be grasped. If all other questions are answered in this manner, you will not be far away from the truth.

設有人問:『何名為暗?』答 云:『明是因,暗是緣,明沒則暗,以明顯晦,以暗顯明,來去相因,成中道義。餘問,悉皆如此。』
“(Let me explain more fully). Suppose someone asks you what is darkness, answer him thus: Light is the Hetu (root condition) and darkness is the pratyaya (Conditions which bring about any given phenomenon). When light disappears, darkness is the consequence. The two are in
contrast to each other. From the correlation or interdependence of the two the doctrine of the ‘Mean’ arises.

汝等於後傳法,依此轉相教授,勿失宗旨。」
“In this way all other questions are to be answered. To ensure the perpetuation of the aim and object of our School in the transmission of the Dharma to your successors, this instruction should be handed down from one generation to another.”

師於大極元年壬子延和七月命門人往新州國恩寺建塔,仍令促工。次年夏末落成。In the 7th Moon of the year of Ren Zi, the first year of Tai Ji or Yan He Era, the Patriarch sent some of his disciples to Xin Zhou to have a shrine (stupa) built within the Guo En monastery, with instructions that the work should be completed as soon as possible. Next year, when summer was well-nigh spent, the stupa was duly completed.

七月一日,集徒眾曰:「吾至八月,欲離世間,汝等有疑,早須相問,為汝破疑,令汝迷盡。吾若去後,無人教汝。」
On the 1st day of the 7th Moon, the Patriarch assembled his disciples and addressed them as follows: “I am going to leave this world by the 8th Moon. Should you have any doubts (on the doctrine) please ask me in time, so that I can clear them up for you. You may find no one to teach you after my departure.”

法海等聞,悉皆涕泣,惟有神會,神情不動,亦無涕泣。師云:「神會小師,卻得善不善等,毀譽不動,哀樂不生,餘者不得。數年山中,竟脩何道?汝今悲泣,為憂阿誰?若憂吾不知去處,吾自知去及;吾若不知去處, 終不預報於汝。汝等悲泣,蓋為不知吾去處;若知吾去處,即不合悲泣。法性本無生滅去來,汝等盡坐,吾與汝說一偈,名曰『真假動靜偈。』汝等誦取此偈,與吾 意同,依此脩行,不失宗旨。」
The sad news moved Fa Hai and other disciples to tears. Shen Hui, on the other hand, remained unperturbed. Commending him, the Patriarch said, “Young Master Shen Hui is the only one here who has attained that state of mind which sees no difference in good or evil, knows neither sorrow nor happiness, and is unmoved by praise or blame. After so many years’ training in this mountain, what progress have you made? What are you crying for now? Are you worrying for me because I do not know whither I shall go? But I do know; otherwise I could not tell you beforehand what will happen. What makes you cry is that you don’t know whither I am going. If you did, there would be no occasion for you to cry. In Suchness (Tathata) there is neither coming nor going, neither becoming nor cessation. Sit down, all of you, and let me read you a stanza on reality and illusion, and on Motion and Quietude. Read it, and your opinion will accord with mine. Practice it, and you will grasp the aim and object of our School.”

眾僧作禮,請師作偈,偈曰:
The assembly made obeisance and asked the Patriarch to let them hear the stanza, which read as follows:

一切無有真,不以見於真,若見於真者,是見盡非真。
In all things there is nothing real, And so we should free ourselves from the concept of the reality of objects. He who believes in the reality of objects Is bound by this very concept, which is entirely illusive.

若能自有真,離假即心真,自心不離假,無真何處真?
He who realizes the ‘Reality’ (i.e.,Essence of Mind) within himself
Knows that the ‘True Mind’ is to be sought apart from false phenomena.
If one’s mind is bound by illusive phenomena
Where is Reality to be found, when all phenomena are unreal?

有情即解動,無情即不動,若脩不動行,同無情不 動。Sentient beings are mobile;
Inanimate objects are stationary.
He who trains himself by exercise to be motionless
(Gets no benefit) other than making himself as still as an inanimate object.

若覓真不動,動上有不動,不動是不動,無情無佛種。
Should you the find true type Immobility
There is Immobility within Activity.
Immobility alone (like that of inanimate objects) is immobility (and not Dhyana),
And in inanimate objects the seed of Buddhahood is not to be found.

能善分別相,第一義不動,但作如此見,即是真如用。
He who is adept in the discrimination of various Dharmalaksana
Abides immovably in the ‘First Principle’ (Nirvana).
Thus are all things to be perceived,
And this is the functioning of Tathata (Suchness).
報諸學道人,努力須用意,莫於大乘門,卻執生死 智。
Treaders of the Path, Exert yourself and take heed
That as followers of the Mahayana School
You do not embrace that sort of knowledge
Which binds you to the wheel of birth and death.

若言下相應,即共論佛義,若實不相應,合掌令歡喜。With those who are sympathetic
Let us have discussion on Buddhism.
As for those whose point of view differs from ours
Let us treat them politely and thus make them happy.

此宗本無諍,諍即失道意,執逆諍法門,自性入生死。」
(But) disputes are alien to our School,
For they are incompatible with its doctrine
To be bigoted and to argue with others in disregard of this rule
Is to subjects one’s Essence of Mind to the bitterness of mundane existence.

時,徒眾聞說偈已,普皆作禮,並體師意,各各攝心,依法脩行,更不敢諍,
Having heard this stanza, the assembly made obeisance in a body. In accordance with the wishes of the Patriarch, they concentrated their minds to put the stanza into actual practice, and refrained from religious controversy.

乃知大師不久住世。法海上座再拜問曰:「和尚入滅之後,衣法當付何人?」
Seeing that the Patriarch would pass away in the near future, the head Monk, Fa Hai, after prostrating himself twice asked, “Sir, upon your entering Nirvana, who will be the inheritor of the robe and the Dharma?”

師曰:「吾於大梵寺說法以至于今,抄錄流行,目曰:『法寶壇經』,汝等守護,遞相傳授,度諸群生,但依此說,是名正法。
“All my sermons,” replied the Patriarch, “from the time I preached in Da Fan monastery, may be copied out for circulation in a volume to be entitled ‘Sutra Spoken on the High Seat of the Treasure of the Law’. (Dharmaratha) Take good care of it and hand it down from one generation to another for the salvation of all sentient beings. He who preaches in accordance with its teachings preaches the Orthodox Dharma.

今為汝等說法,不付其衣,蓋為汝等信根淳熟,決定無疑堪任大事。然據先祖達摩大師付授偈意,衣不合傳。侷曰:
So much for the Dharma, as to transmission of the robe, this practice is to be discontinued. Why? Because you all have implicit faith in my teaching, and being free from all doubts you are able to carry out the lofty object of our School. Furthermore, according to the implied meaning of the stanza by Bodhidharma, the first Patriarch, on Dharma transmission, the robe need not be handed down to posterity. The stanza reads:–

『吾本來茲土,傳法救迷情,一花開五葉,結果自然成。』」
The object of my coming to this land (i.e., China)
Is to transmit the Dharma for the deliverance of those under delusion
In five petals the flowers will be complete.
Thereafter, the fruit will come to bearing naturally.

師復曰:「汝等若欲成就種智,須達一相三昧,一行三昧。The Patriarch added, “Learned Audience, purify your minds and listen to me. He who wishes to attain the All-knowing Knowledge of a Buddha should know the ‘Samadhi of Specific Object’ and the ‘Samadhi of Specific Mode’.

若於一切處而不住相,於彼相中不生憎愛,亦無取捨,不念利益成壞等事,安閑恬靜,虛融澹泊,此名一 相三昧。若於一切處行住坐臥,純一直心不動道場,其成淨土,此名一行三昧。In all circumstances we should free ourselves from attachment to objects, and our attitude towards them should be neutral and indifferent. Let neither success nor failure, neither profit nor loss, worry us. Let us be calm and serene, modest and accommodating, simple and dispassionate. Such is the ‘Samadhi of Specific Object’. On all occasions, whether we are standing, walking, sitting or reclining, let us be absolutely straightforward. Then, remaining in our sanctuary, and without the least movement, we shall virtually be in the Kingdom of Pure Land. Such is the ‘Samadhi of Specific Mode’.

若人具二三昧,如地有種,今藏長養,成熟其實,一相一行,亦復如是。
“He who is complete with these two forms of Samadhi may be likened to the ground with seeds sown therein. Covered up in the mud, the seeds receive nourishment therefrom and grow until the fruit comes into bearing.

我今說法, 猶如時雨,普潤大地,汝等佛性,譬諸種子,遇茲霑洽,悉皆發生。承吾旨者,決獲菩提;依吾行者,定證妙果。聽吾偈曰:
“My preaching to you now may be likened to the seasonable rain which brings moisture to a vast area of land. The Buddha-nature within you may be likened to the seed which, being moistened by the rain, will grow rapidly. He who carries out my instructions will certainly attain Bodhi. He who follows my teaching will certainly attain the superb fruit (of Buddhahood). Listen to my stanza:

『心地含諸種,普雨悉皆萌,頓悟花情已,菩提果自成。』
Buddha-seeds latent in our mind
Will sprout upon the coming of the all-pervading rain.
The ‘flower’ of the doctrine having been intuitively grasped,
One is bound to reap the fruit of Enlightenment.

師說偈已,曰:「其法無二,其心亦然,其道清淨,亦無諸相。汝等慎勿觀靜,及空其心;此心本淨,無可取捨,各自努力,隨緣好去。」
Then he added, “The Dharma is non-dual and so is the mind. The Path is pure and above all forms. I warn you not to use those exercises for meditation on quietude or for keeping the mind a blank. The mind is by nature pure, so there is nothing for us to crave for or give up. Do your best, each of you, and go wherever circumstances lead.”

爾時,徒眾作禮而退。Thereupon the disciples made obeisance and withdrew.

大師,七月八日,忽謂門人曰:「吾欲歸新州,汝等速理舟楫。」大眾哀留甚堅,
On the 8th day of the 7th Moon, the Patriarch gave a sudden order to his disciples to get ready a boat for his going back to Xin Zhou (his native place). In a body they entreated him earnestly and pitifully to stay.

師曰:「諸佛出現,猶示涅槃;有來必去,理亦常然。吾此形骸,歸必有所。」。」
“It is only natural that I should go,” said the Patriarch, “for death is the inevitable outcome of birth, and even the various Buddhas who appear in this world have to go through an earthly death before entering Parinirvana. There can be no exception for my physical body, which must be laid down somewhere.”

眾曰:「師從此去,早晚可回。」師曰:「葉落歸根,來時無口。」
“After your visit to Xin Zhou,” entreated the assembly, “please return here sooner or later.”
“Fallen leaves go back to where the root is, and when I first came, mouth I had not,” replied the Patriarch.

又問曰:「正法眼藏,傳付何人?」
Then they asked, “To whom, Sir, do you transmit the Womb of the Dharma Eye?”

師曰:「有道者得,無心者通。」
“Men of principle will get it, and those who are mind-less will understand it.”

又問後莫有難否? 師曰: 吾滅後五、六年,當有一人來取吾首。聽吾記曰: They further asked, “Will any calamity befall you hereafter?”
“Five or six years after my death,” replied the Patriarch, “a man will come to cut off my head. I have made the following prophecy of which please take note:–

頭上養親,口裡須餐。遇滿之難,楊柳為官。
To the top of the parent’s head, offerings are made, For the mouth must be fed.
When the calamity of ‘Man’ befalls, Yang and Liu will be the officials.

又云吾去七十年,有二菩薩從東方來,一出家,一在家。同時興化,建立吾宗。締緝伽藍,昌隆法嗣。
He added, “Seventy years after my departure two Bodhisattvas from the East, one a layman and the other a monk, will preach contemporaneously, disseminate the Law widely, establish our School on a firm basis, renovate our monasteries and transmit the doctrine to numerous promising successors.”

問曰:「未知從上佛祖應現已來,傳授幾代,願垂開示。」
“Can you let us know for how many generations the Dharma has been transmitted, from the appearance of the earliest Buddha up to now?” asked the disciples.
師云:「古佛應世,已無數量,不可計也。今以七佛為始。過去莊嚴劫毘婆尸佛、尸棄佛、毗舍浮佛;今賢劫拘留孫佛、拘那含牟尼佛、迦葉佛、釋迦文佛是為七佛
“The Buddhas who have appeared in this world are too many to be counted,” replied the Patriarch. “But let us start from the last seven Buddhas. They are: Of the last Kalpa, the Alamkarakalpa: Buddha Vipassin, Buddha Sikhin, Buddha Vessabhu.
Of the present Kalpa (the Bhadrakalpa): Buddha Kakusundha, Buddha Konagamana, Buddha Kassapa, Buddha Gautama (Sakyamuni).
“From the Buddha Sakyamuni, the Law was transmitted to the:

「釋迦文佛首傳 (It was then in turn transmitted to)
第一、摩訶迦葉尊者1st Patriarch Arya Mahakasyapa
第二、阿難尊者 2nd Patriarch Arya Ananda
第三、商那和修尊者 3rd Patriarch Arya Sanavasa
第四、優波(毛匊)多尊者 4th Patriarch Arya Upagupta
第五、提多迦尊者 5th Patriarch Arya Dhritaka
第六、彌遮迦尊者 6th Patriarch Arya Michaka
第七、婆須蜜多尊者 7th Patriarch Arya Vasumitra
第八、佛馱難提尊者 8th Patriarch Arya Buddhanandi
第九、伏馱蜜多尊者 9th Patriarch Arya Buddhamitra
第十、脇尊者 10th Patriarch Arya Parsva
第十一、富那夜奢尊者 11th Patriarch Arya Punyayasas
第十二、馬嗚大士 12th Patriarch Bodhisattva Asvaghosa
第十三、迦毗摩羅尊者 13th Patriarch Arya Kapimala
第十四、龍樹大士 14th Patriarch Bodhisattva Nagarjuna
第十五、迦那提婆尊者 15th Patriarch Kanadeva
第十六、羅睺羅多尊者 16th Patriarch Arya Rahulata
第十七、僧伽難提尊者 17th Patriarch Arya Sanghanandi
第十八、伽耶舍多尊者 18th Patriarch Arya Sangayasas
第十九、鳩摩羅多尊者 19th Patriarch Arya Kumarata
第二十、闍耶多尊者 20th Patriarch Arya Jayata
第二十一、婆脩盤頭尊者 21st Patriarch Arya Vasubandhu
第二十二、摩拏羅尊者 22nd Patriarch Arya Manura
第二十三、鶴勒那尊者 23rd Patriarch Arya Haklenayasas
第二十四、師子尊者 24th Patriarch Arya Sinha
第二十五、婆舍斯多尊者 25th Patriarch Arya Vasiastia
第二十六、不如蜜多尊者 26th Patriarch Arya Punyamitra
第二十七、般若多羅尊者 27th Patriarch Arya Prajnatara

第二十八、菩提達摩尊者 28th Patriarch Arya Bodhidharma (the first Patriarch in China)
第二十九、慧可大師 29th Patriarch Grand Master Hui Ke
第三十、僧璨大師 30th Patriarch Grand Master Seng Can
第三十一、道信大師 31st Patriarch Grand Master Dao Xin
第三十二、弘忍大師 32nd Patriarch Grand Master Hung Ren

惠能是為三十三祖。從上諸祖,各有稟承,汝等向後遞代流傳,毋令乖誤。」
And I am the 33rd Patriarch (i.e.,the 6th Patriarch in China). Thus, by pupillary, the Dharma was handed down from one Patriarch to another. Hereafter, you men should in turn transmit it to posterity by passing it on from one generation to another, so that the tradition may be maintained.

大師,先天二年癸丑歲八月初三日-是年十二月,改 元開元-於國恩寺齋罷,謂諸徒眾曰:「汝等各依位坐,吾與汝別。」
On the 3rd day of the 8th Moon of the year of Kui Chou, the second Year of Xian Tian Era (A.D. 713), after taking food at the Guo En Monastery, the Patriarch addressed his disciples as follows: “Please sit down, for I am going to say good-bye.”

法海自言:「和尚留何教法,令後代迷人,得見佛性?」
Thereupon Fa Hai spoke to the Patriarch, “Sir, will you please leave to posterity definite instructions whereby people under delusion may realize the Buddha nature.”

師言:「汝等諦聽,後代迷人,若識眾生,即是佛性;若不識眾生,萬劫覓佛難逢。
“It is not impossible,” replied the Patriarch, “for these men to realize the Buddha-nature, provided they acquaint themselves with the nature of ordinary sentient beings. But to seek Buddhahood without such knowledge would be in vain even if one shall spend aeons of time in the search.

吾今教汝識自心眾生,見自心佛性。欲求見佛,但識眾生;只為眾生迷佛,非是佛迷眾生。
“Now, let me show you how to get acquainted with the nature of the sentient beings within your mind, and thereby realize the Buddha-nature latent in you. Knowing Buddha means nothing else than knowing sentient beings, for the latter ignore that they are potential Buddhas, whereas a Buddha sees no difference between himself and other beings.

自性若悟,眾生是佛;自 性若迷,佛是眾生。自性平等,眾生是佛;自性邪險,佛是眾生。汝等心若險曲,即佛在眾生中,一念平直,即是眾生成佛。
When sentient beings realize the Essence of Mind, they are Buddhas. If a Buddha is under delusion in his Essence of Mind, he is then an ordinary being. Purity in the Essence of Mind makes ordinary beings Buddhas. Impurity in the Essence of Mind reverts even a Buddha to an ordinari being. When your mind is crooked or depraved, you are ordinary beings with Buddha-nature latent in you. On the other hand, when you direct your mind to purity and straightforwardness even for one moment, you are a Buddha.

我心自有佛,自佛是真佛,自若無佛 心,何處求真佛?汝等自心是佛,更莫狐疑,外無一物而能建立,皆是本心生萬種法。
“Within our mind there is a Buddha, and that Buddha within is the real Buddha. If Buddha is not to be sought within our mind, where shall we find the real Buddha? Doubt not that Buddha is within your mind, apart from which nothing can exist. Since all things or phenomena are the production of our mind,

故經云:『心生,種種法生;心滅,種種法滅。』吾今留一偈,與汝等別,名 『自性真佛偈』。後代之人,識此偈意,自見本心,自成佛道。偈曰:
The Sutra says, ‘When mental activity begins, various things come into being; when mental activity ceases, they too cease to exist.’ In parting from you, let me leave you a stanza entitled ‘The Real Buddha of the Essence of Mind’. People of future generations who understand its meaning will realize the Essence of Mind and attain Buddhahood. It reads:

真如自性是真佛,邪見三毒是魔王,邪迷之時魔在舍,正見之時佛在堂。
The Essence of Mind or Tathata (Suchness) is the real Buddha,
While heretical views and the three poisonous elements are Mara.
Enlightened by Right Views, we call forth the Buddha within us.
When our nature is dominated by the three poisonous elements,
We are said to be possessed by Mara;

性中邪見三毒生,即是魔王來住舍,正見自除三毒心,魔變成佛真無假。
But when Right Views eliminate from our mind these poisonous elements,
Mara will be transformed into a real Buddha.

法身報身及化身,三身本來是一身,若向性中能自見,即是成佛菩提因。
The Dharmakaya, the Sambhogakaya and the Nirmanakaya —
These three Bodies emanate from one (i.e., the Essence of Mind).
He who is able to realize this fact intuitively
Has sown the seed, and will reap the fruit of Enlightenment.

本從化身生淨性,淨性常在化身中,性使化身行正道,當來圓滿真無窮。

It is from the Nirmanakaya that our ‘Pure Nature’ emanates;
Within the former the latter is to be found.
Guided by ‘Pure Nature,’ the Nirmanakaya treads the Right Path,
And will some day attain to the Sambhogakaya, perfect and infinite.

婬性本是淨性因,除妊即是淨性身,性中各自離五欲,見性剎那即是真。
‘Pure Nature’ is an outgrowth of our sensual instincts;
By getting rid of sensuality, we attain the Pure Dharmakaya.
When our temperament is such that we are no longer the slaves of the five sense-objects,
And when we have realized the Essence of Mind even for one moment only, then Truth is known to us.

今生若遇頓教門,忽悟自性見世尊,若欲修行覓作佛,不知何處擬求真。
Should we be so fortunate as to be the followers of the Sudden School in this life,
In a sudden we shall see the Bhagavat of our Essence of Mind.
He who seeks the Buddha (from without) by practicing certain doctrines
Knows not where the real Buddha is to be found.

若能心中自見真,有真即是成佛因,不見自性外覓佛,起心總是大癡人。
He who is able to realize the Truth within his own mind
Has sown the seed of Buddhahood
He who has not realized the Essence of Mind and seeks the Buddha from without
Is a fool motivated by wrong desires

頓教法門今已留,救度世人須自修,報汝當來學道者,不作此見大悠悠。
I have hereby left to posterity the teaching of the Sudden School
For the salvation of all sentient beings who care to practice it.
Hear me, ye future disciples!
Your time will have been badly wasted if you neglect to put this teaching into practice.

師說偈已,告曰:「汝等好住,吾滅度後,莫作世情悲泣雨淚,受人弔問。身著孝服,非吾弟子,亦非正法。
Having recited the stanza, he added, “Take good care of yourselves. After my passing away, do not follow the worldly tradition, and cry or lament. Neither should messages of condolence be accepted, nor mourning be worn. These things are contrary to the Orthodox Teaching, and he who does them is not my disciple.

但識自本心,見自本性,無動無靜,無生無滅,無去無 來,無是無非,無住無往。恐汝等心迷,不會吾意,今再囑汝,令汝見性。吾滅度後,依此修行,如吾在日;若違吾教,縱吾在世,亦無有益。」
What you should do is to know your own mind and realize your own Buddha-nature, which neither rests nor moves, neither becomes nor ceases to be, neither comes nor goes, neither affirms nor denies, neither stays nor departs. Lest your mind should be under delusion and thus fail to catch my meaning, I repeat this to you to enable you to realize your Essence of Mind. After my death, if you carry out my instructions and practice them accordingly, my being away from you will make no difference. On the other hand, if you go against my teaching, no benefit would be obtained, even if I continued to stay here.”

復說偈曰: 「兀兀不修善,騰騰不造惡,寂寂斷見聞,蕩蕩心無著。」
Then he uttered another stanza:
Imperturbable and serene, the ideal man practices no virtue.
Self-possessed and dispassionate, he commits no sin.
Calm and silent, he gives up seeing and hearing.
Even and upright, his mind abides nowhere.

師說偈已,端坐至三更,忽謂門人曰:「吾行矣!」奄然遷化,于時異香滿室,白虹屬地,林木變自,禽獸哀嗚。
Having uttered the stanza, he sat reverently until the third watch of the night. Then he said abruptly to his disciples, “I am going now,” and in a sudden passed away. A peculiar fragrance pervaded his room, and a lunar rainbow appeared which seemed to join up earth and sky. The trees in the wood turned white, and birds and beasts cried mournfully.

十一月,廣韶新三郡官僚,洎門人緇白,爭迎真身,莫決所之。乃焚香禱曰:「香煙指處,師所歸焉。」時,香煙直貫曹溪。十一月十三日,遷神龕併所傳衣缽而回。
In the 11th Moon of that year the question of the Patriarch’s resting place gave rise to a dispute among the government officials of Guang Zhou, Shao Zhou and Xin Zhou, each party being anxious to have the remains of the Patriarch removed to its own district. The Patriarch’s disciples, together with other Bhikkhus and laymen, took part in the controversy. Being unable to come to any settlement among themselves, they burnt incense and prayed to the Patriarch to indicate by the direction of the drift of the smoke the place which he himself would choose. As the smoke turned directly to Cao Xi, the shrine (in which the body was kept) together with the inherited robe and bowl was accordingly taken back there on the 13th day of the 11th Moon.

次年七月二十五日出龕,弟子才辯,以香泥上之。門人憶念取首之記,遂先以鐵葉漆布,固護師頸入塔。忽於塔內,白光出現,直上衝天,三日始散。
Next year, on the 25th day of the 7th Moon, the body was taken out of the shrine, and Fang Bian, a disciple of the Patriarch, plastered it with incense-clay. Recollecting the Patriarch’s prediction that someone would take away his head, the disciples, as a matter of precaution, strengthened his neck by wrapping it with iron sheets and lacquered cloth before the body was placed in the stupa. Suddenly, a flash of white light rushed out from the stupa, went straight towards the sky, and did not disperse until three days after.

韶州奏聞,奉敕立碑紀師道行。
The incident was duly reported to the Throne by the officials of Shao Zhou District. By imperial order, tablets were erected to record the life of the Patriarch.

師,春秋七十有六,年二十四傳衣,三十九祝髮,說法利生三十七載。得旨嗣法者,四十三人,悟道超凡者,莫知其數。
The Patriarch inherited the robe when he was 24, had his hair shaved (i.e., was ordained) at 39, and died at the age of 76. For thirty-seven years he preached for the benefit of all sentient beings. Forty-three of his disciples inherited the Dharma, and by his express consent became his successors, while those who attained enlightenment and thereby got out of the rut of the ordinary man were too numerous to be counted.

達摩所傳信衣,中宗賜摩納寶缽,及才辯塑師真相,並道具等,主塔侍者尸之,永鎮寶林道場。流傳壇經,以顯宗旨,興隆三寶,普利群生者。
The robe transmitted by Bodhidharma as the insignia of Patriarchship, the Mo Na robe and the crystal bowl presented by Emperor Zhong Zong, the Patriarch’s statue made by Fang Bian, and other sacred articles, were put in charge of the keeper of the stupa. They were to be kept permanently in Bao Lin Monastery to guard the welfare of the temple. The Sutra spoken by the Patriarch was published and circulated to make known the principles and objects of the Dharma School. All these steps were taken for the prosperity of the ‘Three Gems’ (i.e., Buddha, Law, and Order) as well as for the general welfare of all sentient beings.

附錄: 守塔沙門令韜  Appendix by Ling Tao, the Stupa Keeper

師入塔後,至開元十年壬 戌八月三日,夜半,忽聞塔中如拽鐵索聲。眾僧驚起,見一孝子從塔中走出。尋見師頸有傷,具以賊事聞於州縣。縣令楊侃、刺史柳無忝,得牒切加擒捉。五日,于石角村,捕得賊人,送韶州鞠問。
At midnight of the 3rd day of the 8th Moon of the Year of Ren Xu, in the 10th year of the Kai Yuan Era, noises similar to those made by the dragging of an iron chain were heard within the stupa in which the Patriarch’s remains were enshrined. Awakened by the alarm, the Bhikkhus saw a man in mourning run out from the pagoda. Subsequently, they found that injuries had been inflicted on the Patriarch’s neck. Reports were duly made to Prefect Liu Wu Tian and Magistrate Yang Kan. Upon receiving the complaint they made a vigilant search for the culprit, who five days after was arrested in Shi Jiao Village and sent to Shao Zhou for trial.

云:「姓張,名淨滿,汝州梁縣人。于洪州開元寺,受新羅僧金大悲錢二十千,令取六祖大師首,歸海東供養。」
He stated that his name was Zhang Jing Man, a native of Liang of Ru Zhou, and that in Kai Yuan Monastery of Hong Zhou he had received two thousand cash from a Xin Lo (a state in Korea) Bhikkhu named Jin Da Bei, who ordered him to steal the Patriarch’s head to be sent back to Korea for veneration.

柳守聞狀,未即 加刑。乃躬至曹溪,問師上足令韜曰:「如何處斷?」韜曰:「若以國法論,理須誅夷。但以佛教慈悲,冤親平等;況彼求欲供養,罪可恕矣。」柳守加歎曰:「始 知佛門廣大。」遂赦之。
Having taken this statement Prefect Liu reserved judgement and went personnaly to Cao Xi to consult the Patriarch’s senior disciple, Ling Tao, as to the adequate sentence to be passed. Ling Tao said, “According to the law of the state, the death sentence should be passed. But as mercy is the keynote of Buddhism, which teaches that kindred and enemies should be treated alike, coupled with the fact that religious veneration is the motive of the crime, the offender may be pardoned.” Much impressed, Prefect Liu exclaimed, “Now I begin to realize how liberal and broad-minded the Buddhists are!” The prisoner was accordingly set free.

上元元年,肅宗遣使就請師衣缽歸內供養。至永泰元年五月五日,代宗夢六祖大師請衣缽。七日,敕刺史楊緘云:
Emperor Su Zong, who wished to do veneration to the Patriarch’s robe and bowl, sent an ambassador to Cao Xi to escort them with due respect to the royal palace. They were kept there until the 1st year of Yong Tai, when emperor Dai Zong had a dream in the night of the 5th day of the 5th Moon that the Patriarch asked him to return the relics. On the 7th day of the same moon, the following edict addressed to Yang Jian was issued:

「朕夢感能禪師請傳衣袈裟,卻歸曹溪。今遣鎮國大將軍劉崇景頂戴而送。朕謂之國寶,卿可於本寺如法安置。專令僧眾親承宗旨者,嚴加守護,勿令遺墜。」 後或為人偷竊,皆不遠而獲,如是者數四。憲宗諡大鑒禪師。塔曰「元和靈照」。其餘事蹟,系載唐尚書王維、刺史柳宗元、刺史劉禹錫等碑。守塔沙門令韜錄。
“Whereas His Majesty dreamt that Dhyana Master Hui Neng asked for the restitution of the inherited robe and bowl, Marshal Zhen Guo (‘Pillar of State’, a title of honor) Liu Chong Jing is hereby detailed to convey them with due reverence to Cao Xi. These relics are regarded by His Majesty as state valuables, and you are directed to store them properly in Bao Lin Monastery and give express orders to the Bhikkhus, who had received personal instructions from the Patriarch, to exercise special care for their protection, so that no loss or breakage may be suffered.”
Thereafter, the relics were stolen several times, but on each occasion they were recovered before the thief could run away far.

Emperor Xian Zong conferred on the Patriarch the Posthumous title ‘Da Jian’ (the great mirror, ot the great seer) and wrote the epigraph ‘Yuan He Ling Zhao’ (Harmonious spirit shines forth divinely) for the stupa.

Other biographical materials are to be found in the tablets recording the life of the Patriarch written by Chancellor Wang Wei, Prefect Liu Zong Yuan, Prefect Liu Yu Xi, and others, all of the Tang Dynasty.

This entry was posted in 佛經, 修心養性, 禪修, 諸法實相 by wtsai. Bookmark the permalink.

About wtsai

台南一中、台大物理、 哈佛博士。曾任教授、科學家、工程師。專長: 吹牛、高能物理、太空物理,地球物理,人造衛星設計、測試、發射、資料回收及科學應用。略涉: 武俠、太極、瑜珈、導引、氣功、經脈、論語、易經、老莊、一乘佛經、禪經、靈界實相、Hawkins、Seth。

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