PART TWO RIGHT ATTITUDE SINGLE-MINDED WAY
第二部 正確的態度 一心一意的道路
Our way is not to sit to acquire something; it is to express our true nature. That is our practice. To cook is not just to prepare food for someone or for yourself; it is to express your sincerity. So when you cook you should allow yourself plenty of time; you should work on it with nothing in your mind, and without expecting anything. You should just cook!
The Bodhisattva’s way is called “the single-minded way,” or “one railway track thousands of miles long.” The railway track is always the same.
There were two good friends, Chokei and Hofuku. They were talking about the Bodhisattva’s way, and Chokei said, “Even if the arhat (an enlightened one) were to have evil desires, still the Tathagata (Buddha) does not have two kinds of words. I say that the Tathagata has words, but no dualistic words.” Hofuku said, “Even though you say so, your comment is not perfect.” Chokei asked, “What is your understanding of the Tathagata’s words?” Hofuku said, “We have had enough discussion, so let’s have a cup of tea!”
Hofuku did not give his friend an answer, because it is impossible to give a verbal interpretation of our way. Nevertheless, as a part of their practice these two good friends discussed the Bodhisattva’s way, even though they did not expect to find a new interpretation.
When my talk is over, your listening is over. There is no need to remember what I say; there is no need to understand what I say. You understand; you have full understanding within yourself.
2.2 REPETITION 重複
“If you lose the spirit of repetition, your practice will become quite difficult.” If you lose the spirit of repetition it will become quite difficult, but it will not be difficult if you are full of strength and vitality. Actual practice is repeating over and over again.
2.3 ZEN AND EXCITEMENT 遠離興奮
It is necessary for us to keep the constant way. Zen is not some kind of excitement, but concentration on our usual everyday routine. If you become too busy and too excited, your mind becomes rough and ragged. If possible, try to be always calm and joyful and keep yourself from excitement.
If your mind is calm and constant, you can keep yourself away from the noisy world even though you are in the midst of it. Just continue in your calm, ordinary practice and your character will be built up. 如果你的心是寧靜、恆常的，那麼哪怕你身在喧鬧的世界中，仍然會不為所擾。儘管身處喧囂和變遷的中心。只要能夠對寧靜、平常的修行持之以恆，你的人格特質將可建立起來。
Building character is like making bread—you have to mix it little by little, step by step, and moderate temperature is needed. You know yourself quite well, and you know how much temperature you need. You know exactly what you need. But if you get too excited, you will forget how much temperature is good for you, and you will lose your own way. This is very dangerous.
2.4 RIGHT EFFORT 正精進
The most important point in our practice is to have right or perfect effort. Right effort directed in the right direction is necessary. If your effort is headed in the wrong direction, especially if you are not aware of this, it is deluded effort.
Usually when you do something, you want to achieve something, you attach to some result. From achievement to non-achievement means to be rid of the unnecessary and bad results of effort . If you do something in the spirit of non-achievement, there is a good quality in it.
You should get rid of excessive things. If your practice is good, without being aware of it you will become proud of your practice. That pride is extra. 你應該丟棄多餘的成分。比方說，如果你修行得很好而因此心生驕傲，這個“驕傲”就是多餘的成分。
Because all of us are doing the same thing, making the same mistake, we do not realize it. So without realizing it, we are making many mistakes. And we create problems among us. This kind of bad effort is called being “Dharmaridden,” or “practice-ridden.” You are involved in some idea of practice or attainment, and you cannot get out of it.
By “purity” we mean things as they are. When something is added, that is impure. The true quality of zazen is always there, even if you are not aware of it, so forget all about what you think you may have gained from it. Just do it. The quality of zazen will express itself; then you will have it. Get rid of something extra from our practice. “清淨”指的只是讓事物“如其所如”。當有多餘的東西加到其上面，它就不再清淨。坐禪的本質是存在於你的坐禪之中，所以不要去想你也許可以從坐禪中得到什麼。只管打坐就夠，坐禪的本質會表現出它自己，而你也會得到它。把多餘的東西從我們修行中除去。
Try not to see something in particular; try not to achieve anything special. You already have everything in your own pure quality. 不要把目光放在特定的東西上，不要想取得某種特別的成就。在你自己的清淨本質中，你已經擁有了一切。
2.5 NO TRACE 不留一絲痕跡
“When you do something, you should burn yourself completely, like a good bonfire, leaving no trace of yourself.”
When we practice zazen our mind is calm and quite simple. But usually our mind is very busy and complicated, and it is difficult to be concentrated on what we are doing. This is because before we act we think, and this thinking leaves some trace. Our activity is shadowed by some preconceived idea. The thinking not only leaves some trace or shadow, but also gives us many other notions about other activities and things. These traces and notions make our minds very complicated. 坐禪時，我們的心是平靜而相當單純的。但平時，我們的心卻忙碌而複雜，難以專注於手邊的事情。這是因為我們做事情以前會左思右想，而這種思考會留下一些痕跡。我們的活動會被某些先入之見的陰影所籠罩，這些痕跡和陰影使我們的心變得複雜異常。當我們帶著一顆複雜心做事，我們的活動也會變得十分複雜。
When we do something with a quite simple, clear mind, we have no notion or shadows, and our activity is strong and straightforward. But when we do something with a complicated mind, in relation to other things or people, or society, our activity becomes very complex.
Right thinking does not leave any shadow. Thinking which leaves traces comes out of your relative confused mind. If you leave a trace of your thinking on your activity, you will be attached to the trace. If you attach to the idea of what you have done, you are involved in selfish ideas. 正確的思考是不會留下任何陰影的。會留下痕蹟的思考是來自我們相對的、混亂的心。如果你的思想在你的活動上留下了痕跡，你就會執著於那個痕跡。如果你執著於你做過的事情，你就會被自私的觀念所纏縛。
We should not forget what we did, but it should be without an extra trace. It is necessary to remember what we have done, but we should not become attached to what we have done in some special sense. In order not to leave any traces, when you do something, you should do it with your whole body and mind; you should be concentrated on what you do. You should do it completely, like a good bonfire. You should burn yourself completely.
If you practice zazen with your whole body and mind, even for a moment, that is zazen. So moment after moment you should devote yourself to your practice. You should not have any remains after you do something. But this does not mean to forget all about it.
When you practice Zen you become one with Zen. Some activity which covers everything is true activity. 禪修時，你會變得與禪合而為一。只有覆蓋全部活動的活動才是真正的活動。
Our approach is just to be concentrated on a simple basic practice and a simple basic understanding of life. There should be no traces in our activity.
2.6 GOD GIVING 布施就是無所執著
Every existence in nature, every existence in the human world, every cultural work that we create, is something which was given, or is being given to us. But as everything is originally one, we are, in actuality, giving out everything.
Dogen-zenji said, “To give is non-attachment.”It does not matter what is given. To give a penny or a piece of leaf is “dana prajna paramita”; to give one line, or even one word of teaching is “dana prajna paramita.” If given in the spirit of non-attachment, the material offering and the teaching offering have the same value. 道元禪師說過：“布施是無執。” 布施要三輪體空: 無施者、受者和所施之物之念。你布施什麼都無關宏旨，布施一文錢或者一片樹葉都是“布施波羅蜜”，布施一句話甚至一個字也是“布施波羅蜜”。要是能以無執的精神布施，那麼你的物質布施和言語布施具有同等價值。
But if we are aware that what we do or what we create is really the gift of the “big I,” then we will not be attached to it, and we will not create problems for ourselves or for others.
And we should forget, day by day, what we have done; this is true non-attachment. And we should do something new. To do something new, of course we must know our past, and this is all right. But we should not keep holding onto anything we have done; we should only reflect on it.
2.7 Mistakes in Practice避開修行中的錯誤
“It is when your practice is rather greedy that you become discouraged with it. So you should he grateful that you have a sign or warning signal to show you the weak point in jour practice.”
Usually when you practice zazen, you become very idealistic, and you set up an ideal or goal which you strive to attain and fulfill. When you are idealistic, you have some gaining idea within yourself; by the time you attain your ideal or goal, your gaining idea will create another ideal.
So as long as your practice is based on a gaining idea, and you practice zazen in an idealistic way, you will have no time actually to attain your ideal. Moreover, you will be sacrificing the meat of your practice. Because your attainment is always ahead, you will always be sacrificing yourself now for some ideal in the future. You end up with nothing. But even worse than this idealistic attitude is to practice zazen in competition with someone else .
Our Soto way puts an emphasis on “just sitting.” When you are tired of sitting, or when you are disgusted with your practice, you should recognize this as a warning signal. You become discouraged with your practice when your practice has been idealistic. You have some gaining idea in your practice, and it is not pure enough. So you should be grateful that you have a sign or warning signal to show you the weak point in your practice. 我們曹洞宗的禪道強調“只管打坐”。如果你打坐累了，或者對打坐產生厭煩的感覺，就應該知道這是一個警告。那表示你的修行太理想主義，表示你有貪念，修行不夠淸淨。所以，你應該感激有警告的出現，把你修行的弱點指出來。
So as long as you continue your practice, you are quite safe. Whether you have difficulties in your practice or not, as long as you continue it, you have pure practice in its true sense.
If you find some difficulty in your practice, that is the warning that you have somie wrong idea, so you have to be careful. It is like having a toothache when your teeth are not so good. When you feel some pain in your teeth, you go to the dentist. That is our way. The cause of conflict is some fixed idea or one-sided idea.
2.8 LIMITING YOUR ACTIVITY限制自己的活動
In our practice we have no particular purpose or goal, nor any special object of worship.
The way to practice without having any goal is to limit your activity, or to be concentrated on what you are doing in this moment. If you limit your activity to what you can do just now, in this moment, then you can express fully your true nature. This is our way. 要想讓修行不帶任何目的，有一個方法，就是限制你的活動，或者說專注於你當下的活動。如果你把活動限制在此時此地，就能充分表現出你的真實本性，這是我們的禪道。
So instead of having some object of worship, we just concentrate on the activity which we do in each moment. When you bow, you should just bow; when you sit, you should just sit; when you eat, you should iust eat. If you do this, the universal nature is there.
2.9 Study Yourself 研究佛法，研究自己。
The purpose of studying Buddhism is not to study Buddhism, but to study ourselves. It is impossible to study ourselves without some teaching. The purpose of practice in a particular place is to study ourselves. To be independent, we study. To be aware of the meaning of your life, you practice zazen.
For us, the monastic life was the usual life. It is the people who are outside of the monastery who feel its atmosphere. Those who are practicing actually do not feel anything. We are doing what we should do. That is Buddhism. 對我們來說，僧院生活就是平常生活。只有從寺外來的人才會感受到寺院的修行氣氛，身在其中的人實際上是不知不覺的。(如魚在水中，人在空氣中)。我們只是做我們該做的事，這就是佛法。
The purpose of talking about ourselves is to correct the misunderstanding we have when we are attached to any particular temporal form or color of the big activity. It is necessary to talk about what our body is and what our activity is so that we may not make any mistake about them. So to talk about ourselves is actually to forget about ourselves. Dogen-zenji said, “To study Buddhism is to study ourselves. To study ourselves is to forget ourselves.”
2.10 TO POLISH A TILE 靜坐於煩惱之中
“When you become you, Zen becomes Zen. When you are you, you see things as they are, and you become one with your surroundings.”
I have often talked to you about a frog. A frog is very interesting creature. He sits like us, too, you know. But he does not think that he is doing anything so special.
When you go to a zendo and sit, you may think you are doing some special thing. But look at the frog. A frog also sits like us, but he has no idea of zazen. Watch him. If something annoys him, he will make a face. If something comes along to eat, he will snap it up and eat, and he eats sitting. 當你到禪堂打坐時，也許會覺得自己做的是很特別的事。但是看看青蛙吧！一隻青蛙的坐姿就像坐禪，但它卻不會有任何坐禪的觀念。如果有誰打擾它，它就會露出鬼臉；如果有什麼昆蟲飛過，它就會伸出舌頭，“啪”的一聲把昆蟲吃掉。
Baso was a famous Zen master called the Horse-master. He was the disciple of Nangaku, one of the Sixth Patriarch’s disciples. One day while he was studying under Nangaku, Baso was sitting, practicing zazen. Nangaku saw him sitting like a great mountain or like a frog. Nangaku asked, “What are you doing?” ‘Tampracticingzazen,” Baso replied. “Why are you practicing zazen?” “I want to attain enlightenment; I want to be a Buddha,” the disciple said.
So Nangaku picked up a tile and started to polish it. Baso, his disciple, asked, “What are you doing?” “I want to make this tile into a jewel,” Nangaku said. “How is it possible to make a tile a jewel?” Baso asked. “How is it possible to become a Buddha by practicing zazen?” Nangaku replied. “Do you want to attain Buddhahood? There is no Buddhahood besides your ordinary mind. When a cart does not go, which do you whip, the cart or the horse?” the master asked. 南嶽禪師撿起一塊磚，在石頭上磨來磨去。馬祖禪師對於師父為何要磨磚感到不解，便問道：“師父在做什麼？”南嶽禪師答道：“我要把它磨成鏡子。”馬祖禪師吃驚地問道：“磚塊怎麼能夠磨成鏡子?”南嶽禪師回答說：“如果磚塊不能磨成鏡子，坐禪又如何能成佛？你不是想成佛嗎？佛性並不存在於你的平常心之外。當一輛牛車不走，你是要鞭打牛還是鞭打車？”
You should be like a frog always. That is true zazen. When you become you! When you are you, then no matter what you do, that is zazen. 你應該始終像只青蛙一樣，那才是真正的坐禪。當你是你的時候，不管你做什麼，都是坐禪。
Because you lose yourself, your problem will be a problem for you. If you do not lose yourself, then even though you have difficulty, there is actually no problem whatsoever. You just sit in the midst of the problem; when you are a part of the problem, or when the problem is a part of you, there is no problem, because you are the problem itself. The problem is you yourself. If this is so, there is no problem. 因為迷失了自己，煩惱對你來說就會成為真正的煩惱。當你沒有迷失自己，哪怕你碰到麻煩，都不會覺得它們是什麼煩惱。你只需靜坐在煩惱之中，而當煩惱成為你的一部分，或者當你成為煩惱的一部分，就再也沒有煩惱可言，因為你已成為煩惱自身，那煩惱就是你自身。如果是這樣，就不再有煩惱可言。
When your life is always a part of your surroundings, then there is no problem. When you start to wander about in some delusion which is something apart from you yourself, then your surroundings are not real anymore, and your mind is not real anymore. If you yourself are deluded, then your surroundings are also a misty, foggy delusion. Once you are in the midst of delusion, there is no end to delusion. You will be involved in deluded ideas one after another. To solve the problem is to be a part of it, to be one with it.
When you practice zazen, your problem will practice zazen, and everything else will practice zazen too. You should just polish the tile; that is our practice. The purpose of practice is not to make a tile a jewel. 當你坐禪，你的煩惱也會跟著坐禪，萬物也會跟著坐禪。你應該只管磨磚，別管磨的結果，這就是我們的修行。我們修行的目的不是要把磚磨成鏡。
When you are you, you see things as they are, and you become one with your surroundings. There is your true self. There you have true practice; you have the practice of a frog.
2.11 CONSTANCY堅定不移 空性使你理解一切
“Cultivate your own spirit” means not to go seeking for something outside of yourself
It is quite usual for us to gather pieces of information from various sources, thinking in this way to increase our knowledge. Actually, following this way we end up not knowing anything at all. Our understanding of Buddhism should not be just gathering many pieces of information, seeking to gain knowledge. Instead of gathering knowledge, you should clear your mind. If your mind is clear, true knowledge is already yours. 一般來說，我們都喜歡從各種管道蒐集信息，以為這是增加知識的方法。但實際上，這種方法到頭來往往讓我們落得一無所知。我們對佛法的了解不應該只是蒐集信息，設法增加知識。與其蒐集一堆知識，你更應該反過來把自己的心清理乾淨。心一旦清乾淨了，真正的知識就是你已具有的。(智慧本具)
When you listen to our teaching with a pure, clear mind, you can accept it as if you were hearing something which you already knew. This is called emptiness, or omnipotent self, or knowing everything.
When you know everything, you are like a dark sky. Sometimes a flashing will come through the dark sky. After it passes, you forget all about it, and there is nothing left but the dark sky.
And we should not hoard knowledge; we should be free from our knowledge. We should not try to surprise people by our wonderful treasures. If you want to appreciate something fully, you should forget yourself. You should accept it like lightning flashing in the utter darkness of the sky. 我們也不應貯藏知識，而應跳脫知識的羈絆。別拿這種收藏在別人面前炫耀。如果你想充分欣賞某個事物，就得先忘卻自我，像漆黑夜空接受閃電的態度一樣來接受它。
Sometimes we think it is impossible for us to understand something unfamiliar, but actually there is nothing that is imfamiliar to us. People who know the state of emptiness always have open the possibility of accepting things as they are. In everything they do, even though it may be very difficult, they will always be able to dissolve their problems by constancy.
2.12 COMMUNICATION 說你想說的話
“Without any intentional, fancy way of adjusting yourself, to express yourself as you are is the most important thing.”
If you do not understand your master’s words, you are not his disciple. To understand your master’s words, or your master’s language, is to understand your master himself. And when you understand him, you find his language is not just ordinary language, but language in its wider sense. Through your master’s language, you understand more than what his words actually say.
When we say something, our subjective intention or situation is always involved. So there is no perfect word; some distortion is always present in a statement. But nevertheless, through our master’s statement we have to understand objective fact itself—the ultimate fact.
To understand reality as a direct experience is the reason we practice zazen, and the reason we study Buddhism. Through the study of Buddhism, you will understand your human nature, your intellectual faculty, and the truth present in your human activity. And you can take this human nature of yours into consideration when you seek to understand reality. But only by the actual practice of Zen can you experience reality directly and understand in their true sense the various statements made by your teacher or by Buddha. 透過直接經驗可以理解到，實相正是我們禪修的目的，也是我們研究佛法的目的。透過對佛法的研究，你將了解你的本性、心智機能，以及呈現在你各種活動中的真理。但唯有透過禪修，你才可能直接體驗實相，以及明白你師父和佛陀的各種開示的意義。
Your master’s direct statement may not be only in words; his behavior is likewise his way of expressing himself. In Zen we put emphasis on demeanor, or behavior, but rather the natural expression of yourself. We emphasize straightforwardness. You should be true to your feelings, and to your mind, expressing yourself without any reservations.
When you listen to someone, you should give up all your preconceived ideas and your subjective opinions; you should just listen to him, just observe what his way is. We put very little emphasis on right and wrong or good and bad. We just see things as they are with him, and accept them. 聽別人說話時，你應該把所有的成見與主觀意見擺在一邊，就只是聆聽對方說話和觀察他說話的方式，不可以有太多對與錯、善與惡的價值判斷。我們應該只是聆聽和接納。
Usually when you listen to some statement, you hear it as a kind of echo of yourself. You are actually listening to your own opinion. The other danger is to be caught by the statement.
If you do not understand your master’s statement in its true sense, you will easily be caught by something which is involved in your subjective opinion, or by some particular way the statement is expressed. You will take what he says only as a statement, without understanding the spirit behind the words.
So as a listener or a disciple, it is necessary to clear your mind of these various distortions. A mind full of preconceived ideas, subjective intentions, or habits is not open to things as they are. That is why we practice zazen; to clear our mind of what is related to something else. 因此，一個聆聽者或一個弟子必須把心清理乾淨，以避開各種扭曲的可能。一個充滿既定觀念、主觀考慮或習氣滿盈的心，是不會對物的如實之相有所敞開的。這就是為什麼我們要坐禪：把心清理乾淨，除去它與所有事物的關聯。
To be quite natural to ourselves, and also to follow what others say or do in the miost appropriate way. Without any intentional, fancy way of adjusting yourself, to express yourself freely as you are is the most important thing to make yourself happy, and to make others happy.
In an exact sense, the only thing we actually can study in our life is that on which we are working in each moment. We should be concentrated with our full mind and body on what we do; and we should be faithful, subjectively and objectively, to ourselves, and especially to our feelings. 嚴格來說，我們唯一能研究的，只是我們在每一個當下所做的事。我們應該把全副身心貫注於手邊的事情。我們應該忠於自己，特別是忠於自己的感覺。
Even when you do not feel so well, it is better to express how you feel without any particular attachment or intention. True communication depends upon our being straightforward with one another. But the best way to communicate may be just to sit without saying anything. Then you will have the full meaning of Zen.
2.13 Everything is practicing 一切作為都是修行
Zen is something to practice. The best way is just to practice. It is almost impossible to talk about Buddhism. So not to say anything, just to practice it, is the best way. 禪是拿來修行的。最好的方式是只管修行。佛法幾乎是不可言說的，所以上策就是什麼都別說，只管打坐。
When we talk about something we just talk about something, just the positive or the negative side, without trying to express some intellectual, one-sided idea. And we listen without trying to figure out some intellectual understanding, without trying to understand from just a one-sided view.我們在說話時應該只是說話，不要試圖表達一些知性的、偏頗的觀念。同樣地，我們在聆聽時應該只是聆聽，不要試圖從偏頗的觀點去理解我們聽到的話。
When you do everything without thinking about whether it is good or bad, and when you do something with your whole mind and body, then that is our way. Dogen-zenji said, “When you say something to someone, he may not accept it, but do not try to make him understand it intellectually. Do not argue with him; just listen to his objections until he himself finds something wrong with them.”
Try not to force your idea on someone, but rather think about it with him. Try not to win in the argument; just listen to it.
Whether you have a problem in your life or not depends upon your own attitude, your own understanding. 一個煩惱是不是真正的煩惱，取決於你的態度，取決於你了解的深淺。
2.14 “Our NIRVANA, THE WATERFALL” 對死亡的新體會
When we see one whole river we do not feel the living activity of the water, but when we dip a part of the water into a dipper, we experience some feeling of the water, and we also feel the value of the person who uses the water.
Before we were born, we had no feeling; we were one with the universe. After we are separated by birth from this oneness, then we have feeling. 出生以前我們是沒有感覺的，我們與宇宙一體。出生讓我們脫離這種一體性，讓我們有了七情六欲。
When you do not realize that you are one with the river, or one with the universe, you have fear.
Whether it is separated into drops or not, water is water. Our life and death are the same thing.
We say, “Everything comes out of emptiness.” One whole river or one whole mind is emptiness. When we reach this understanding we find the true meaning of our life. When we reach this understanding we can see the beauty of human life. When you can sit with your whole body and mind, and with the oneness of your mind and body under the control of the universal mind, you can easily attain this kind of right understanding.